NSK Co., Ltd.
Pioneer of mycelium culture medium extracts

LEM Research

Herpesu virus

Therapy for hepatitis B patients using LEM


National Hospital Organization Kokura Medical Center

6 grams of LEM were administered daily to 40 HBeAg-positive patients for at least four months, who were investigated continuously using serum biochemical tests and  HBV blood markers.
[Patient profiles]
19 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 8 patients with chronic inactive hepatitis, and 13 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B
As for HBV markers, DNA polymerase activity decreased dramatically.
Out of the 40 patients, 17 had their serum HBe-antigen turn negative, and among these 10 a positive reaction in HBe-antibodies was seen, with seroconversion rates of 25%.
Among serum biochemical tests, GOT, GPT, and ZTT decreased significantly.
Aside from one patient’s complaint of abdominal bloating and loose stools during administration, no serious side effects were observed.



Long-term effects of LEM on immune function in hemophiliac patients infected with HIV


University of Occupational and Environmental Health

Among seven cases of hemophiliac patients infected with HIV who received LEM, five patients with hemophilia A taking LEM for at least four years were investigated. LEM was administered three times a day for a total dose of 9 grams.
LEM was administered in four out of five cases with decent medication adherence, and despite over four years of observation, neither a decline in CD4 nor adverse effects were observed, suggesting the long-term effectiveness of LEM against HIV infection.



Influenza A virus

Infuruence on infection by inhuruenza
A virus-Protecting host cells from viral infection


University of Tsukuba

It was examined whether LEM has an effect of protecting cells from infection by the influenza virus. Influenza A virus was mixed into the LEM solution of a specified concentration. The mixed solution was added to cells to test their infectivity through the plaque assay. The results indicated that the plaques were LEM concentration-dependently reduced in number, suggesting the effect of protecting host cells from viral influenza infection.



Influence on multiplication of influenza A virus - Reducing the viral replication process

It was examined whether LEM has an effect of reducing the influenza viral replication process. Cells were namely infected with influenza A virus, and then LEM solution of a specified concentration was added to the infected cells. The expansion of plaques was tested through the plaque assay. The results showed that the plaques were LEM concentration-dependently reduced in size, suggesting the effect of reducing the influenza viral replication process, and of reducing multiplication as a result.


Inhibitory effect on liver tumor cells

Inhibitory effect of LEM against hepatic tumor formation and proliferation of ascites hepatoma cells


Toyama University

Rats were raised on feed that included 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, which expresses carcinogenic activity, then had their liver weights compared after sacrifice at 41 weeks.
In the non-LEM group, liver weight was 4 times the size of the control group, whereas liver size in the LEM group was half that of the non-LEM group.



Antitumor effect

Antitumor effect of hot water extracted LEM obtained from shiitake mycelium culture 

 ・Report I: Inhibitory effect on AH60C transplanted tumors

Toyama University

This study investigated the effect of orally administered LEM on transplanted tumor volume in rats with ascites hematoma cells AH60C transplanted into their backs, and results showed that LEM inhibits increases in volume and that this inhibitory effect was more significant when LEM was administered after the tumor volume had increased rather than at the same time as the transplant.



Endometrial carcinoma

Clinical study on the prevention of recurrence of endometrial cancer post-surgery by administering LEM


Keiju Medical Center

This study conducted three courses of monthly dosing of carboplatin + endoxan + adria + mycin in 13 patients with endometrial cancer (aged 61.2 ± 11.4 years) post hysterectomy.Patients were given 6 grams of LEM daily (3 grams twice a day) from the second week post-surgery for 22.5 ± 13.5 months, and were then examined for recurrence every two months afterward using vaginal cuff smears, tumor markers, ultrasound, and CT scans. Furthermore, those found to have signs of recurrence were checked every month.
For one patient, CA-19-9 levels rose three months after being discharged from the hospital but began decreasing when the LEM dose was increased to 9 grams per day (3 grams 3 times a day).This suggests that LEM inhibits recurrence in patients with postoperative endometrial cancer.



Inhibits liver metastasis of malignant tumors

Inhibition of liver metastasis by oral administration of LEM


Toyama University

Since colorectal cancer is generally prone to hepatic metastasis, we investigated hepatic metastasis of malignant tumors by creating a hepatic metastasis model in experimental animals to prevent micro hepatic metastasis after resection of the primary tumor of colorectal cancer.
In rats, ascites hepatocarcinoma cells AH-60C were ingested from the portal vein. LEM was orally administered at 300 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days before or after tumor inoculation, and the number of liver metastasis colonies was measured 21 days later.
The number of liver metastases was significantly reduced by oral administration of LEM in both rats and mice. The liver metastasis rate was significantly reduced in mice.




The effects of LEM on antibody production and immune-mediated hepatic cell injury


Osaka City University、Tohoku University

Hepatic cell damage was induced in vitro through ADCC (Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) response and activated macrophage (Mφ), then the effects of LEM on these was investigated.
Adding ADCC response and activated Mφ to an isolated liver cell culture significantly reduced protein synthesis.
When liver cells were treated with LEM prior to exposure to these reactions, this decline in protein synthesis was significantly reduced.
This suggests that LEM reduces immune-mediated liver cell injury and has a protective effect on liver cells.



Cerebral infarction

Protective effects of LEM against hypoxic-ischemic injury


Josai University

After inoculating mice with a powdered feed mixed with LEM, a double ligature was performed on the right carotid artery, then the extent of brain damage caused by hypoxic gas was evaluated using infarct volume measurements.
In the control group, infarction formed over a broad range, including the hippocampus and cortex, while cerebral infarction formation in the LEM group was restricted to one area, with a significant decrease in cerebral infarction volume of 50% to 70%, depending on the concentration of LEM.



Mitogen activity

Glycoprotein fraction and mitogen activity obtained through LEM cultures


Toyama University

Glycoprotein fractions obtained from LEM cultures with mouse spleen cells promoted division of spleen cells and acted as a mitogen. The cells that showed particularly pronounced mitogenic activity were those for Mφ. (*Mitogen: Involved in regulating cellular immune response)


Effect on immunity

The effects of LEM on mouse immunity


Jichi Medical School

Mφ were collected from the peritoneal cavity of mice, which were then combined with fractionated LEM components and cultured, then checked for immune activity.
The group of Mφ with added fractionated LEM components was revealed to have the same LAF activity and IL-1 production as the control group, Mφ cultured with LPS.
At the same time, strong chemotaxis was observed in Mφ chemotaxis.



Enhances IL-1 production

The effects of LEM on bacterial infection

Mice given LEM were infected with a variety of different bacterial strains, then examined.
Mice given LEM showed resistance to various bacterial attacks, and pronounced anti-bacterial capacity in vivo as well as prolonged survival were both observed. This suggests that LEM has the ability to activate immune cells responsible for killing germs and eliminating foreign matter such as bacteria.